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Fact Sheet


Fact Sheet on Turkmenistan                                                                                                                                   July 2013

Country and CapitalTurkmenistan, Ashgabat
Area; arable land488,100 sq Kms ( 80% desert) -  about 1.4 times of Rajasthan;  9 million hectares (4.5 % of land)
Important citiesAshgabat, Turkmenabat, Dashoguz, Mary, Balkanabat and Turkmenbashy  (port city)
Population (2010)Approx 5.5 million; sparsely populated
Land border/Caspian shoreline (Kms)Afghanistan-744, Iran-992, Uzbekistan-1,621, Kazakhstan -379, Caspian Sea shoreline-1,768
Languages spokenMostly Turkmen as well as Russian, also some Uzbek
ReligionSunni Muslims - 89%; Eastern Orthodox- 9%
Independence Day27 October 1991
Day of Neutrality12 December 1995
ConstitutionNew Constitution adopted on 26 September 2008
Head of State & Head of Govt.H.E. Mr. Gurbanguly Berdimuhamedov, since 14 February 2007 and reelected in Feb2012
Legislature and SuffrageUnicameral Parliament (Mejlis) with 125 members; 18 years
Last elections12 February 2012
Political partiesDemocratic Party of Turkmenistan (Main political party in the country)
Judicial BranchSupreme Court
Foreign MinisterMr. Rashid Meredov. ( He is of the rank of Deputy Prime Ministers/ Deputy Chairman of Cabinet of Ministers and de-facto No. 2 person in Turkmenistan)
CurrencyStable; Manat ( US $ 1= 2.843 Manat); pegged to US Dollar since January 2010
Natural resourcesHuge reserves of Natural Gas , also crude oil, cotton, wheat and  iodine
GDP (2012 est)GDP - US$ 33.47 billion; GDP (PPP)  - US$ 47.55 billion
GDP growth rate (2012)11.1%
Global Trade in 2012US$ 34.5 billion; Exports US$ 19.9 billion, Imports US$ 14.6 billion.
Major exports: Natural Gas, Petroleum products, textiles, cotton, electricity, wheat
Major imports: manufactured goods, consumable items, foodstuff
Major countries-Exports: China, Iran, Russia, Turkey
Major countries-Imports: Turkey, Ukraine, Russia, UAE and Germany
External debtUS $ 429 million
Foreign Policy OrientationPositive Neutrality, with constructive engagement with important countries viz., Turkey, Iran, UAE and China.
Multilateral membershipUN and agencies, CIS (Associate member), ECO, OIC, NATO-PFP, OSCE, NAM, IMF.  Not yet WTO, SCO member.
Relations with IndiaHistorically close and friendly ties; Turkman Gate built in Delhi in 1650s; Presently Turkmenistan Airlines operate 8 flights per week between two countries (2 to Delhi and 6 to Amritsar); TAPI gas pipeline Project of key importance to India’s energy security.
ITEC training in India324 Turkmen nationals trained in different courses since 1994.
Trade with India in 2011-12 (Source: Ministry of Commerce, India)Total trade US$ 60.84 million; Exports from India US$; 43.95 million; Imports by India US$ 16.89 million.  Also, imports of goods by approx. 1,500 Turkmen shopping tourists visiting India.
Imports from IndiaElectronic and electrical items, machinery, woven apparel, pharmaceuticals, tyres and batteries, meat products 
Exports to  IndiaRaw cotton and inorganic chemicals.
Major visits  from IndiaPM Shri  P.V. Narasimha Rao - Sept 1995; EAM Shri Jaswant Singh - May 1999; MOS(P&NG) Shri Dinsha Patel -  Feb 2006; MOS(EA) Shri  E.Ahamed - Oct 2006 & Feb 2007; Minister of Water Resources Shri Saifuddin Soz - Dec 2006; VP Shri Hamid Ansari - April 2008;  EAM Shri S.M. Krishna - Sept. 2009; MOS Smt. Preneet Kaur -Feb. 2010; MOS(P&NG) Shri Jitin Prasada - Sept. 2010; Minister(P&NG) Shri Murli Deora - December 2010; MOS (Communication & IT) Shri Sachin Pilot - October 2011; Minister (P&NG) Shri S. Jaipal Reddy - May 2012; Minister (Comm. & IT) Shri Kapil Sibal, 16-19 September 2012; Minister (P&NG) Dr. M. Veerappa Moily, 9-10 July 2013
Major visits to IndiaPresident Niyazov - April 1992 & Feb 1997; Foreign Minister Boris Shikhmuradov - April 1995, July 1996, Dec 1997 and April 2000.  Dy.PM  & Foreign Minister Meredov  Jan 2008 (for 2nd IGC);  President Berdimuhamedov - May 2010; Minister of Oil & Gas Industry, B. Nedirov April 2011; Deputy Minister of Defence Jebbar Akyyev May-June 2011, Dy. Speaker of Parliament Ms. Gurbangul Bayramova 2-5 October 2012, Minister of Oil and Gas Industry Mr. K. Abdullaev, 14-17 October 2012, Dy. PM and Foreign Minister Rashid Meredov, 21-22 January 2013
Joint CommissionAgreement signed on December 1995; 1st meeting held in October 2006, 2nd meeting in January 2008, 3rd IGC in February 2010; 4th IGC held in New Delhi on 22 January 2013.
Important datesIndia recognised Turkmenistan as an independent country on December 26, 1991; established resident Embassy in Ashgabat on 30 January 1994.
Indian nationals in TurkmenistanApproximately 2,500.  Prominent among them are 2,000 technicians/semi-skilled workers at Yolotan.  450 are construction workers in Ashgabat.  Remaining 50 work at Hazar/offshore Caspian region.
Turkmen nationals in India100 students studying in Pune (some also in Hyderabad) on their own expenses.
Air links with IndiaTurkmen Airlines operates 8 flights a week to India - 2 flights from Ashgabat to Delhi(Wednesdays and Saturdays) and 6 flights from Ashgabat to Amritsar. Turkmen Airlines may start 2 flights a week from Ashgabat to Goa in 2014.


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